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1. Getting around the city                  5. The city of skyscrapers
2. Always in a hurry                           6. For the holiday and more
3. Unknown side of the city              7. Saving the variety
4. Winning and losing                        8. Nickname for a building


A. New York is really the melting pot of the world. Over 30 percent of its
residents have come from abroad. It is believed that the cityhas the greatest
linguistic diversity on the planet. There are over 800 different languages
spoken by its people. As some of these languages are nearly extinct, the City
University of New York has begun a project called the Endangered Language
Alliance. Its aim is to preserve rare languages like Bukhari, Vhlaski, and Ormuri.


B. New Yorkers love to think they know everything about their city: where to find
the best fruit, how to avoid paying full price at museums, what route to take to
avoid traffic. But New York City can reveal new treasures even to its veterans.
Beyond the city where New-Yorkers work, eat, play and commute every day
lies a hidden New York: mysterious, forgotten, abandoned or just overlooked.
There are places about which you’re not likely to read in any guidebook.


C. The Chrysler Building was in a race with the Bank of Manhattan for getting the
title of the tallest skyscraper in the world. The Bank was likely to triumph, with
its height of 282 meters. But the spire of the Chrysler Building was constructed
in secret inside the tower. Just one week after the Bank of Manhattan was
finished, it was put in place, making it 318 meters tall and beating the Bank. It
wouldn’t keep this title for long: one year later the Empire State Building was erected.


D. The Flatiron Building was constructed between 1901 and 1903 at the
intersection of Broadway and Fifth Avenue. It was designed by Chicago’s
Daniel Burnham as a steel-frame skyscraper covered with white terra-cotta.
Built as the headquarters of the Fuller Construction company, the skyscraper
was meant to be named Fuller Building. But locals soon started calling it
“Flatiron” because of its unusual shape. The name stuck and soon became official.


E. How does Rockefeller Center manage to find the perfect fur-tree each
Christmas season? They do aerial searches by helicopter, of course, and bring it
to the city during the night when there isn’t much traffic on the streets. After
the tree is taken down for the year, it continues to be useful. For example, in
2005 Habitat for Humanity used the wood to make doorframes for houses for
the poor and in 2012 the paper was used to publish a book.


F. In New York life never stands still. People have to call cabs, ride subway cars,
do business of all kinds, eat pizzas and sandwiches for lunch. When you
multiply that by more than eight million people in less than 500 square miles,
you get the idea: everyone goes everywhere as fast as it is humanly possible.
Whatever you do, don’t stop in the middle of the sidewalk or you’ll make
everyone around you incredibly angry.


G. New York is extremely easy to navigate. Manhattan is divided into numbered
streets from north to south and avenues from east to west. It’s almost
impossible to get lost there. Buses are useful to travel around Manhattan, and
the subway is the best means of transport to the other parts of the city. At some
stage you’ll definitely use a yellow taxi. Try to get one on an avenue that’s
going in the same direction you are – you’ll save time and money. And don’t
forget to leave a tip for the driver.

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Washington National Cathedral L

Washington National Cathedral is a dramatic Gothic building. It is so __________________ that it is considered to be one of the greatest architectural treasures of the world. There are various excursions to the cathedral. The best idea is to go online to check the guides’ schedules as they __________________ in different aspects of the building’s history. It took 82 years to build the cathedral – Theodore Roosevelt laid the cornerstone in 1908, and the cathedral’s __________________ didn’t technically stop until 1990. The cathedral provoked strong opposition early on, but later the numerous __________________ calmed down. It is great to have a walk around the cathedral along the __________________ paths in the garden. The 2011 earthquake caused an estimated $26 million in damages to the cathedral. Repairs are underway, but nevertheless, __________________ still have full access to the key areas of interest inside the cathedral.
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The name of Alaska 

Do you know the origin of the place name Alaska? The name Alaska comes from the Aleut word alaxsxaq, mean “an object toward which the action of the sea is directed” – that is, the mainland. It is also known as Alyeska, the “great land”, an Aleut word form from the same root. Its nicknames are the Land of the Midnight Sun and America’s Last Frontier. Its first nicknames were “Seward’s folly” and “Seward’s icebox” to laugh at the secretary of state who negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia, which consider foolish at the time.
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Time for reading

Nevsky Prospect is the main and most famous street of St. Petersburg. The unique architectural ensemble of Nevsky Prospect was formed during the 18th – early 20th centuries. It starts from the bank of the Neva River, runs through the centre of the city and ends at the Neva River. The whole history of St. Petersburg can be seen in the history of the avenue. Nevsky Prospect is 4.5 km long and 25-60 m wide. The narrowest section is located from the Admiralty to the Moika River, showing the original width of the avenue. After the construction of the Admiralty in 1704 and the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in 1710, it was decided to build a road connecting these two important structures with each other and with the Novgorod Path, which was used by Russian merchants. The construction began on both sides at the same time, the roads were laid through the wood, and in 1760s they were connected into one road, which was not as straight as it was planned, but with a turn at the Vosstaniya Square. Nevsky Prospect got its name only in 1783. The road was paved with cobble stones,  and a few rows of trees were planted along the street  . and a few rows of trees were planted along the street It was the first street in St. Petersburg with gas lighting. By the early 20th century Nevsky Prospect had become the financial centre of Russia as the 40 largest banks of Russia, Europe and America had their offices there. Nowadays, Nevsky Prospect is the centre of cultural and social life of St. Petersburg. There are museums, theatres, exhibition halls, cinemas, restaurants, cafés, shops and hotels there or nearby the avenue .

1. and hotels there or nearby the avenue

2. showing the original width of the avenue

3. which was not as straight as it was planned

4. which were built by famous architects and

5. connecting these two important structures with

6. and a few rows of trees were planted along the street

7. as the 40 largest banks of Russia, Europe and America